Its peer-reviewed, written by an internationally known expert in the field of early language.
His academic credentials are unassailable. ...But it's not written in english, so will the "reconstructionists" ignore it?
Via the always spot-on Language Continuity Blog:
The authors use cautious language, but this is actually a complete demolition of the many aspects of traditional PIE reconstruction, including laryngeals and other inventions."
Note that Dr. Villar is known as a 'traditionalist'. Good, he's not fringe. But what else has he written?
Google him, you'll find him referred to frequently in some interesting journals. oopsie.
Now, even the "traditionalists" are tearing apart the nonsense that was "PIE". I wonder how long that will take to filter down to american reconstructionists?
Terms the article will studiously avoid using: Pictish, Fairy.
Note the 15 foot-thick walls, and the site located on an easily defensible strip of land with clear view of water on 3 sides. Read: Someone was scared of something... seriously
. These weren't the only inhabitants of the neighborhood. Curiously absent from the article, but plain to those who understand the Why of Walls. A curious omission, no?
Note the casual reference to "zig zag lines
", in the region known as the center of its Pictish inhabitants
(who, we also note, waaaaay predate the later migrants who became known as Scots). These indigenous inhabitants go back to the Paleolithic era. A glaring, curious omission that this obvious artistic feature is left hanging, without association whatsoever.
Nope, no politicking in that article whatsoever.
The old paradigms get tossed away slowly,
and it takes a loooooong time to filter down into the general public awareness. Things that advanced researchers knew/suspected years ago are eventually released into the general public -- takes awhile for them to catch up with the implications though. Let's see an example:
"An archeological treasure trove unearthed by a team from the Open University could transform our understanding of Stonehenge...
[an] item which the team of diggers initially believed was a cow's tooth was revealed by radiocarbon dating to date back to around 6250 BCE, some 3,000 years before work began
on Stonehenge. ... suggesting a Mesolithic feast
"the discovery is strong evidence
of the continuity of human life at the site
. That means Stonehenge could have been a site of great significance to humans for several thousand years before the monument was built." Continuity?
As in, this site, the confluence of hill, river, and underground spring... used in continuity as far back into time as we can peer... hmm. Couldn't be, right? Because that sounds exactly like what those nuts at the Paleolithic Continuity Working Group
have been publishing about for over a decade! Frustratingly for (some) linguists, their hypotheses are repeatedly supported by the evidence from archeology (like this find), from genetics (see previous posts), and other sciences. Oopsie - convergence of the evidence. meanwhile, the linguists keep saying to ignore
other branches of science (see the comments on a previous post). Which approach do you think makes more sense?
See, the PIE knuckleheads told a narrative that some unknown megalithic culture built these things, but it was "western" invaders who later came along who just must have been 'indoeuropean' (whatever that means), but darn well can't have been indigenous, who later formed the Celts and Druids. They ("druids") simply inherited the site. Utter Hogwash: The evidence shows (repeatedly) that the builders of Stonehenge were just part of an ancient heritage of use of that site, whose direct descendants continued on right there (the "druids"). It was their direct inheritance. Pretty simple, but for those with an anti-indigenous celt revisionist history agenda, its a powerful idea to squash: "The colonial expansion of the Celts started much earlier than La Tene and proceeded (generally) from West to East, not vice versa."
Paleolithic Continuity Theory: again verified
by the physical evidence.
Turns out King Tutenkhamen, of Egypt, was a european. We've known this for quite awhile (at least a couple of decades), and that the entire royal lineage at the time of Egypt's greatest peak of civilization was of European orgin. That ain't new.
What's new is how common his lineage remains in Europe,
and how entirely unrelated he was (99.9% unrelated) to the modern inhabitants of Egypt.
Discuss. I'll start: i get a chuckle when people say that egyptian religion "isn't indo-european". That's only true if you ignore geneticists and anthropologists, and only listen to linguists. Fail.
Disclaimer: yada yada, you know exactly where you aren't allowed to bring this up.
Is getting harsher. Loving this last sentence: "This article presents the initial results from the S2AGES database of calibrated radiocarbon estimates from western Europe in the period
25,000-10,000 years ago. Our aim is to present a population history of this sub-continental region by providing a chronologically-secure
framework for the interpretation of data from genetics and archaeology. (...) We conclude that only archaeology can currently provide the framework for population history and the evaluation of genetic data.
Finally, if progress is to be made in the new interdisciplinary field of population history then both disciplines need to refrain from
inappropriate agricultural thinking that fosters distorting models of European prehistory, and they should also pay less, if any, attention to historical linguistics."References:
- Gamble, Clive, W. Davies, P. Pettitt, L. Hazelwood & M. Richards (2005). "The archaeological and genetic foundations of the European
population during the Late Glacial: Implications for 'Agricultural Thinking'. Cambridge Archaeological Journal
, 15:2, 193-223.
ROTFLMAO -- remember: you are prohibited from discussing this peer-reviewed article, or its implications, in "indo-european" focused groups like ADF.
This sentence bears repeating: "... if progress is to be made... then both disciplines need to refrain from inappropriate agricultural thinking that fosters distorting models of European prehistory, and they should also pay less, if any, attention to historical linguistics."
Bingo. Dead on the money.
Up and comers on the front edge of academic research: this is the best of the best.
A B.A. Dissertation about the PCP has been presented to the University of Bologna, Faculty of Literature and Philosophy, by Giacomo Mazza, under the supervision of Francesco Benozzo.
In his dissertation, G. Mazza discusses Carlo Ginzburg's "Siberian hypothesis" for the diffusion of shamanism in Central Europe (see Storia Notturna. Una decifrazione del Sabba, Torino, Einaudi, 1994), pointing out that many elements collected by Ginzburg could be better understood in in a PCP framework.
Dissertation title: Dal Sabba al Signore degli Animali. Una lettura di Storia notturna di Carlo Ginzburg attraverso il Paradigma della Continuità Paleolitica.
2) A B.A. Dissertation about the PCP has been presented to the University of Bologna, Faculty of Literature and Philosophy, by Elisa Rateni, under the supervision of Francesco Benozzo. In her dissertation, E. Rateni discusses in a PCP frame the origins and developments of a few aspects related to sacrifice, hunting and cognitive processes.
Dissertation title: Cacciatori, prede e altari sacrificali. Continuità paleolitica e modelli politici e narrativi.
The celts built Stonehenge, and all the other megaliths.
Of course, that depends on how you define "celt".
For decades, the definition was based on an arbitrary (and false) idea of an aryan race who invaded and conquered/assimilated/engulfed any indigenous western europeans. Later on that aryan label was re-named "proto-indo-european", for a few reasons. That nonsense is still being taught in lower-tier universities. You'll still find it in (very) outdated reading lists
that reflect obsolete ideas. Institutional inertia remains very powerful. Change comes... but slowly.
Good news is that the archaeologic and genetic evidence overwhemingly shows that definition to be false, and top-tier universities are openly researching and discussing this -- and the curriculum will eventually trickle down. The same folks we know who later used the megaliths (the druids for example) were the direct descendants of the cultures and people that erected them. an unbroken line.
On June 9-10, 2011, the CRBC (Centre de Recherche Bretonne et Celtique) will organize at the University of Brest (Brittany, France) an international conference which will bring together several researchers (archaeologists, linguists, geneticists) who will compare their viewpoints on the connections between the populations living in Atlantic Europe and the languages spoken there from the late Paleolithic period… The conference is the introductory stage of an interdisciplinary collaboration between archaeologists, linguists, paleo-anthropologists, historians, geneticists on the same subject.
The received doctrine for the origin of the Celts in Western Europe was centered upon the idea of an Indo-European Invasion in the Copper Age (4th millennium B.C.), by horse-riding warrior pastoralists. The subsequent process of Celtic language evolution would therefore have taken place in the II and I millennium, that is in the Bronze and Iron Age. The evidence collected by archaeology in the last thirty years overwhelmingly prove the absence of any large scale invasion in Europe, and the uninterrupted continuity of most Copper and Bronze Age cultures of Europe from Neolithic, and of most Neolithic cultures from Mesolithic and final Paleolithic.
Some of the participants hold for the PCP (Paleolithic Continuity Paradigm), which considers that the recent prehistory of Western Europe – from the Megalithic culture through the Beaker Bell to the colonialistic La Tène – must have all been Celtic. Consequently, the duration of the colonial expansion of the Celts was much longer than thought, and its direction was from West to East and not vice versa. Other participants will expound different viewpoints.
Normal? Happens all the time? ... uh, no. "Nothing like this has ever been seen in this magnitude in Bolivia. Inhabitants of riverside communities report the smell is nauseating and can be detected as far as a kilometer away from river banks.
Over 1 million fish (now updated to 6 million) and thousands of alligators, turtles, dolphins and other river wildlife are floating dead in numerous Bolivian rivers in the three eastern/southern departments of Santa Cruz, Beni and Tarija.
"The extreme cold front that hit Bolivia in mid-July caused water temperatures to dip below the minimum temperatures river life can tolerate. As a consequence, rivers, lakes, lagoons and fisheries are brimming with decomposing fish and other creatures.
Best pack some grub. All that global warming has resulted in some really whacky things - all of which conspire to send food prices to the moon.